disability

عجز

noun

  1. The condition of being disabled; incapacity.

    from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  2. The period of such a condition: never received a penny during her disability.

    from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  3. A disadvantage or deficiency, especially a physical or mental impairment that interferes with or prevents normal achievement in a particular area.

    from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  4. Something that hinders or incapacitates.

    from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  5. Law A legal incapacity or disqualification.

    from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

Visuals for disability

Examples

Wikipedia

According to many definitions, a disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these. Other definitions describe disability as the societal disadvantage arising from such impairments. Disability substantially affects a person's life activities and may be present from birth or occur during a person's lifetime.[1]

Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. Disability is thus not just a health problem. It is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives.

— World Health Organization, Disabilities[2]

Disability is a contested concept, with different meanings in different communities.[3] It may be used to refer to physical or mental attributes that some institutions, particularly medicine, view as needing to be fixed (the medical model). It may refer to limitations imposed on people by the constraints of an ableist society (the social model). Or the term may serve to refer to the identity of disabled people. Physiological functional capacity (PFC) is a related term that describes an individual's performance level. It gauges one's ability to perform the physical tasks of daily life and the ease with which these tasks are performed. PFC declines with advancing age to result in frailty, cognitive disorders or physical disorders, all of which may lead to labeling individuals as disabled.[1][4]

The discussion over disability's definition arose out of disability activism in the United States and the United Kingdom in the 1970s, which challenged how the medical concept of disability dominated perception and discourse about disabilities. Debates about proper terminology and their implied politics continue in disability communities and the academic field of disability studies. In some countries, the law requires that disabilities are documented by a healthcare provider in order to assess qualifications for disability benefits.[citation needed]

  1. ^ a b Journal of Applied Physiology
  2. ^ "Disabilities". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2016-10-28.
  3. ^ Linton, Simi (1998). Claiming Disability: Knowledge and Identity. New York: New York University Press.
  4. ^ Mugueta-Aguinaga I, Garcia-Zapirain B (2017). "Is Technology Present in Frailty? Technology a Back-up Tool for Dealing with Frailty in the Elderly: A Systematic Review". Aging and Disease. 8 (2): 176–95. doi:10.14336/AD.2016.0901. PMC 5362177. PMID 28400984.